FOREIGN TRADE RELATIONS WITH NATURAL STONE AND MARBLE MINING IN TURKEY

Emrah KORKMAZ

Yalova University, Institute of Social Sciences

SUMMARY

having about 40% of the world's marble potential of Turkey uses only 1% of this potential. marble production in Turkey, particularly after 1985, began to increase and continued to increase with each passing year. Turkey is ranked 6th in the world in the production of marble. Almost all of the natural stone sector is operated by the private sector. There are 2,560 marble quarries, 1,500 factories and 7,500 workshops in the marble sector and approximately 250,000 people are employed. Turkey in 2014, about 5 million 3 is made of natural stone production. Approximately 83% of the natural stone produced in Turkey marble, travertine constitute 16%. Natural stones are the most exported product group of 2015 with 1.9 billion dollars (6.5 million tons) export. In 2015, the highest natural stone exports were made to China with 727 million dollars.

Key words : Marble, Natural Stone, Export, Foreign Trade.

Gel codes : F10, F14, Q32.

NATURAL STONE AND MARBLE

ABSTRACT

Turkey, having about 40% of the world's potential. Marble potential of Turkey. Turkey is ranked in Turkey. Almost all natural stone. There are 2560 marble quarries, 1500 factories and 7500 workshpos. In 2014, approximately 5 million 3 natural stone production was made in Turkey. Natural stones produced in Turkey are around 83% of marble and 16% of travertine. Group of 2015. Natural stone with blackboard. The most natural stone exports in 2015 were 727 million dollars.

Keywords: Marble, Natural Stone, Export, Foreign Trade.

GEL Classifications : F10, F14, Q32.

  1. LOGIN

Natural stones, one of the first examples used as construction materials in human history, are stones that are used in buildings for various purposes, either directly or as a process from the earth's crust. Almost all of the rocks in nature are covered by natural stone according to this definition. Natural stones; They are classified separately according to their usage, hardness and origin. For example, while marble is used in the class used for polishing, it is considered to be soft stone because of its carbon trioxide (03) minerals and it is located in natural stones of metamorphic origin.

The natural stone sector is a sub-sector of mining and is generally known as the ü marble sector Doğal. However, the term imi natural stone tanım is preferred instead of the term ışma marble ıs in terms of sectoral definition due to the decomposition of time between the geological definition of marble and its commercial meanings. Geologically, the term marble refers to metamorphic rocks with crystalline structure as a result of chemically calcined calcium carbonate precipitated rocks due to pressure and heat in long geological periods. Historically, the natural stone sector has emerged and developed in a structure based on marble production and processing, mainly due to its ease of production and processing.

In the world geography, the marbles (crystalline limestone) are found in the area, which is mentioned as the Alpine-Himalayan belt, extending from the Aegean Islands to the Anatolian Peninsula, from Iran to Pakistan, from India (Himalayan Elevation) to China. This large area generally has the same structure. In addition, the marbles and magmatic rocks of the metamorphic (metamorphic) massifs are found in the region of Canada, Sweden, Anatolia, Urals-Siberia, South Africa, South America and Australia which belong to the Hercynian Orogenic belt (MIGEM). , 2015).

Natural stones have been the most important material used especially in the construction sector and art since ancient times. Interior and exterior architecture, natural stones used in construction, finishing, flooring, decoration and sculpture; With its resistance to atmospheric conditions, its machinability and wide usage possibilities, it is also important for today's modern construction sector. This importance is increasing worldwide, and especially in recent years in parallel with the rise of the natural stone industry and trade in Turkey.

In Anatolia, various civilizations have created important works by using rich marble and natural stone resources throughout history. The use of marble in this geography began during the Hittites period and during the time of the Hellenistic and Roman Empires, it lived its golden age. Marble was also used during the Seljuk and Ottoman Empires. Especially, marble, marble and marble quarries in Marmara Island, Gebze, Izmit, Izmir and Bilecik were built. Marble production continued only in certain regions in the first period of the Republic due to economic problems. In this period, marble was mostly used in public buildings such as school construction or railway. During the construction of Anıtkabir, marble quarries in Denizli and Afyon were operated. extracted marbles were processed with modern machines brought from Europe. While the marble sector was moving at a very slow pace until the 1970s, after the 70s, with the revival of the construction sector, the increase in domestic demand after 1980, with the outward opening and investment incentives, began to rise rapidly (İTO, 2016).

When the natural stone reserves of the countries in the world where a number of carbonate rocks reserves, Turkey, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Iran, Greece and seems to be Pakistani. Considering the countries where there are a lot of reserves of hard magmatic rocks, China, Russia, India and Brazil come to the fore. When we look at the natural stone production amounts in the world, it is seen that the country that has a voice in the sector is China. Xiamen Stone Natural Stone and Marble Fair which is accepted as the most important marble fair organization of the world is held in China. This is a very intense participation to the fair. In recent years India has become an important sector in the sector.

One important reason for this is that India has become the focus of attention of the exporting countries. Natural stones are widely used in the construction sector. at the beginning of the most important countries supplying raw materials in this sector in China, India and Turkey comes. In addition, Iran is located in the same zone with Turkey in the coming period it is anticipated that a significant place in the natural stone industry (MİGEM, 2015).

  1. NATURAL STONE PRODUCTION IN THE WORLD AND TURKEY

In this part of the study, natural stone production and natural stone reserves in the world will be examined in terms of continents. Following this natural stone reserves and production in Turkey will be discussed.

2.1. NATURAL STONE PRODUCTION IN THE WORLD

Carbonates, which contain natural stones such as marble, limestone, travertine and onyx, are generally seen in the Alpine-Himalayan belt. When we look at the countries where the reserves are too Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan it seems to be. Brazil, Spain, Ukraine, Norway, Finland, Russia, South Africa, China, Pakistan and India can be said to have significant reserves considering the world's reserves of operable magmatic rocks, also known as hard stones. However, it is very difficult to reach healthy numerical data about world marble reserves.

The State Planning Organization (2001), in a study on marble mining, mentioned the natural stone types that the continents owned and operated. When looking at the natural stone reserves on the continent of Europe, Carrara Marble beds and Sardinian Granites are very important in Italy, where all kinds of rocks are considered marble. Apart from this, there are rich limestone and marble reserves. Spain has rich granite reserves of limestone, marble and especially light pink. In Portugal there are limestone, marble and granite deposits. Greece has limestone, marble and serpentine beds. There are limestone, granite, diorite and other magmatic stone reserves in Germany. These beds are still operated. In Austria, there are beige and gray limestone beds and serpentine reserves. Limestone deposits are available in Belgium. Especially Black Devonian deposits are important. In Bulgaria there are marble, limestone and granite formations. Czechoslovakia has limestone, breccia and granite deposits. In Finland, granite, syenite and labradorite deposits are important. In England there are marble beds in different color and lithology. Especially gray granites are still in operation. In Sweden, there are magmatic stone beds consisting of granite, syenite and labradorite. There are beige and gray limestone deposits in Switzerland. In Norway, granite, diorite, syenite and labradorite deposits are available. There are granite and labradorite deposits in Ukraine. Yugoslavia has limestone, marble and travertine beds. In Bulgaria there are marble, limestone and granite formations. Czechoslovakia has limestone, breccia and granite deposits. In Finland, granite, syenite and labradorite deposits are important. In England there are marble beds in different color and lithology. Especially gray granites are still in operation. In Sweden, there are magmatic stone beds consisting of granite, syenite and labradorite. There are beige and gray limestone deposits in Switzerland. In Norway, granite, diorite, syenite and labradorite deposits are available. There are granite and labradorite deposits in Ukraine. Yugoslavia has limestone, marble and travertine beds. In Bulgaria there are marble, limestone and granite formations. Czechoslovakia has limestone, breccia and granite deposits. In Finland, granite, syenite and labradorite deposits are important. In England there are marble beds in different color and lithology. Especially gray granites are still in operation. In Sweden, there are magmatic stone beds consisting of granite, syenite and labradorite. There are beige and gray limestone deposits in Switzerland. In Norway, granite, diorite, syenite and labradorite deposits are available. There are granite and labradorite deposits in Ukraine. Yugoslavia has limestone, marble and travertine beds. In England there are marble beds in different color and lithology. Especially gray granites are still in operation. In Sweden, there are magmatic stone beds consisting of granite, syenite and labradorite. There are beige and gray limestone deposits in Switzerland. In Norway, granite, diorite, syenite and labradorite deposits are available. There are granite and labradorite deposits in Ukraine. Yugoslavia has limestone, marble and travertine beds. In England there are marble beds in different color and lithology. Especially gray granites are still in operation. In Sweden, there are magmatic stone beds consisting of granite, syenite and labradorite. There are beige and gray limestone deposits in Switzerland. In Norway, granite, diorite, syenite and labradorite deposits are available. There are granite and labradorite deposits in Ukraine. Yugoslavia has limestone, marble and travertine beds. There are granite and labradorite deposits in Ukraine. Yugoslavia has limestone, marble and travertine beds. There are granite and labradorite deposits in Ukraine. Yugoslavia has limestone, marble and travertine beds.

When the countries with natural stone potential in Asia are examined, especially China has limestone, marble and magmatic stone reserves in different colors and designs. In India, there are different colored limestone and marble, granite, gabbro and diorite reserves. South Korea has limestone and granite reserves in different colors and patterns. There are limestone and magmatic stone reserves in Hong Kong. There are limestone, marble onyx and travertine reserves in Iran. There are granite formations in Azerbaijan. There are limestone, gabbro, diorite and granite reserves in Japan. There are limestone and granite deposits in different colors and patterns in North Korea. In the Turkic Republics, there are limestone and magmatic stone reserves (DPT, 2001).

According to the report of the State Planning Organization (2001), the African Republic has very large granite and other magmatic stone reserves in different colors and patterns considering the countries with natural stone potential in the African continent. There are limestone, granite, gabbro, diorite and amphibolite reserves in the Congo. There are limestone, granite, syenite, gabbro and diorite deposits in Egypt and Sudan. Nigeria has limestone and granite reserves. In Mozambique, there are reservoir deposits, granite and syenite. When we look at the situation in countries with natural stone potential in America, limestone, breccia, conglomerate, granite; syenite, serpentine and diabase formations. Argentina has rich onyx, limestone and granite reserves. Brazil has very large granite reserves. Other than this limestone, Onyx and Canadian Granite and serpentine reserves. Onyx, travertine and limestone reserves are available in Mexico (DPT, 2001).

Last but not least, Australia has many different types of marble reserves. In recent years, granite deposits have started to be operated. There are limestone, granite and diorite reserves in some islands in Indonesia. In New Zealand there are limestone and granite formations.

One of the reasons that increase the production of natural stone in the world is the use of natural stones as building and decoration materials. Especially the increase in recent years is parallel to the developments in production and processing technologies. With the rapid development of technology, processing techniques have become perfect. Thus, natural stones can be brought to the desired shape easily and economically and extend their usage areas.

Another important reason for the increase in the number of natural stone consumers in the world was that the designers and especially the architects preferred the materials obtained from natural stones more. In addition, increasing interest in ecological and aesthetic materials and decreasing market prices have also helped to increase consumption. Experts predict that this development will continue in the coming years.

Chart 1: Top 10 Countries in the World Natural Stone Production.

Source: IMO (a), 2016.

Looking at the top ten countries in the world natural stone production, China is ranked first. It realizes 23.5% of the total production alone. India respectively following countries China, Italy, Spain, Iran and Turkey. World production is noteworthy that the development of China and Turkey. Countries that have significant production potential in Asia, China, India, countries that have an influence on the European continent, while Iran Italy, Spain, Turkey and Portugal (IMO-A, 2016).

2.2. NATURAL STONE PRODUCTION IN TURKEY

Turkey has rich reserves of natural stones. marble deposits in Turkey are as small or large spread lenses in metamorphic basement showing the massive nature. Travertine and onyx reserves developed along the known fracture lines of our country. Turkey igneous rock (hard rock) did not include a detailed research for reserves. The reason for this is that the fractured structure, the content of the enclaves, is problematic in terms of color and homogeneity. Numerous researches should be conducted throughout the country in order to increase the hard stone reserves. Turkey's marble reserves are given in Table 1 are known.

Table 1: Operable marble reserves in Turkey

Machinable Reserve

Area

Province

x 1000

Balikesir

1,300,000

Marmara

Bursa

135,000

Kırklareli

33,500

Opium

135,000

Intellectual

9000

Aegean

Izmir

1500

Muğla

181,000

Kutahya

200,000

Servant

500,000

Ankara

2000

Central Anatolia

Eskisehir

960,000

Kirsehir

165,000

Nigde

250,000

Total

3.872 million

Source: SPO, 2001.

Turkey has a rich potential in terms of natural stone. According to the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources data 4 billion in Turkey 3 operable marble, 2.8 billion 3 travertine, 1 billion 3 have granite reserve. In studies conducted so far it has been found to be about 650 different colors and textures of marble in Turkey. The main types of natural stone are marble, travertine, granite, basalt, gabbro, diabase, diorite, serpentine, etc. in various colors and patterns. It shaped.

It will be appropriate to evaluate the combination of reserves and marble in order to see that the natural stone sector constitutes an important source of employment. When the natural stone reserves is seen that Turkey has an important place in the world market.

first place in Turkey in 2015, mineral exports natural stone industry for many years the area has not reached its true potential in the economy. When the natural stone sector was included in the scope of the Mining Law in 1985, a new era was entered into the sector. After this date, the sector grew a little more each year (Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, 2016).

Nowadays, with modern production methods, marble processing capacities are constantly growing. Thanks to the ever-increasing number of modern facilities, the export of blocks made of block marble for many years is now largely done by making the products processed.

According to the data obtained from the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (2016), there are 2,560 marble quarries (maritime operating permit license), 1,500 small and medium-sized factories and 7,500 workshops in the marble sector. Nearly 250,000 people are employed in the natural stone sector, which is produced by the private sector.

Afyon Sugar, Elazig Cherry, Bilecik Beige, Aksehir Black, Travertine Denizli, Manyas White, Tigerskin, Aegean Bordeaux, Milas Lilac, Gemlik Diabase and Supra while Turkey are the most well-known varieties of marble in the international market (Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, 2016).

Marble from the Aegean Region is becoming the favorite of prestigious buildings in the world. The marble extracted in this region has a rich color harmony and variety. Therefore, in the world, the color of the color is produced in the region. The increasing quality increases the interest in Aegean marble. Aegean marble is one of the reasons for making names in Izmir, Afyonkarahisar, Denizli, Usak, Muğla, Burdur and Balıkesir in different colors and patterns of 25 marble varieties are removed. Considering the major projects in which Aegean marble is used, Burdur beige marble used in the section of 6,000 780 square meters at the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Airport in New York City attracts attention. In addition, Disneyland's entertainment center in Australia is decorated with Afyon marbles of 18 thousand square meters. Likewise, in the columns and pavements of the entrance of Saint Pierre Church in the Vatican, Afyon İscehisar marbles were used. The Central Bank of Riyadh, established in Riyadh, is equipped with white marble. In addition, the King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia, Almaty Airport in Kazakhstan and the American Embassy in Uzbekistan are among the lucky structures that use Aegean marble. Other structures decorated with Aegean Region marble resorts in Greece, some casinos in Las Vegas, Finland's private design villas (www.dunya.com, 2016). Likewise, in the columns and pavements of the entrance of Saint Pierre Church in the Vatican, Afyon İscehisar marbles were used. The Central Bank of Riyadh, established in Riyadh, is equipped with white marble. In addition, the King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia, Almaty Airport in Kazakhstan and the American Embassy in Uzbekistan are among the lucky structures that use Aegean marble. Other structures decorated with Aegean Region marble resorts in Greece, some casinos in Las Vegas, Finland's private design villas (www.dunya.com, 2016). Likewise, in the columns and pavements of the entrance of Saint Pierre Church in the Vatican, Afyon İscehisar marbles were used. The Central Bank of Riyadh, established in Riyadh, is equipped with white marble. In addition, the King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia, Almaty Airport in Kazakhstan and the American Embassy in Uzbekistan are among the lucky structures that use Aegean marble. Other structures decorated with Aegean Region marble resorts in Greece, some casinos in Las Vegas, Finland's private design villas (www.dunya.com, 2016). Almaty Airport in Kazakhstan and the American Embassy in Uzbekistan are among the lucky buildings that use Aegean marble. Other structures decorated with Aegean Region marble resorts in Greece, some casinos in Las Vegas, Finland's private design villas (www.dunya.com, 2016). Almaty Airport in Kazakhstan and the American Embassy in Uzbekistan are among the lucky buildings that use Aegean marble. Other structures decorated with Aegean Region marble resorts in Greece, some casinos in Las Vegas, Finland's private design villas (www.dunya.com, 2016).

  1. SWOT ANALYSIS OF NATURAL STONE SECTOR

The assessments in this section include; The State Planning Organization was prepared by compiling the Ninth Development Plan (2007) and www.yaymer.com (2016).

3.1. STRONG ASPECTS OF THE SECTOR

The most important strength of the natural stone sector is the high reserve amount. The diversity of species, colors and patterns, the increase in the demand of the world for Turkish marble, the development of machines and technologies in marble production, hosting a fair that is important in the world ranking, and the recent developments in marketing strategies are the other strengths of the sector. In addition, the strong organizational structure, exporters' associations and the active activities of non-governmental organizations are the strengths.

3.2. WEAKNESS ASPECTS OF THE SECTOR

When the weaknesses of the natural stone sector are examined, the results are listed below. High energy costs, lack of sectoral incentives, lack of qualified staff, lack of working capital, in-house price competition, high workmanship, insurance, premium etc. costs, lack of standardization and measurement, lack of inventory, lack of communication with design and architectural organizations, lack of transportation, port and cost, lack of security by the financial institutions of marble and natural stone licenses, being away from the natural stone sector, entering into the sector as unconscious and unprepared The efforts are the weaknesses of the sector.

3.3. OPPORTUNITIES OF THE SECTOR

Natural stone reserves in European countries tend to be depleted and the decrease in production is one of the opportunities of the sector. In addition, the interest of foreign companies and institutionalized big firms on natural stone mining, the possibility of new reserve areas due to the geological structure of our country, the increasing trend of demand for natural stone products in the world every year, the increase in the participation of second and third generation representatives in company management other opportunities can be evaluated as.

3.4. PROBLEMS OF THE SECTOR

The absence of a ministry representing only the Mining Sector is an important problem in the Turkish Grand National Assembly. In addition, the difficulties encountered in the permits to be taken from many institutions, organizations and ministries during the transition to operation, the tendency to use natural stone imported by the public institutions, the inadequate expertise in the judicial process and the methods of selection of these expertise, the unconscious environmental pressure encountered in all levels, in a wide area of ​​our country The fact that new source searches cannot be carried out due to the negativity caused by terrorism constitutes the problems of the sector.

  1. PLACE IN TURKISH FOREIGN TRADE SECTOR OF NATURAL STONE

Mining Technical and Exploration General Directorate (according to MTA) resource "Visible, Probable and Possible", including 13.9 billion tons (5.2 billion 3 ) having a total reserves of natural stones Turkey, starting with 4000 years of production history from Marmara Island, the world's is one of the oldest natural stone manufacturers.

Table 2: Turkey's natural stone reserves

reserves

Ton

Known Reserves

589 million

1.59 billion

Possible Reserves

1.545 billion

4.171 billion

Possible Reserves

3.027 billion

8.172 billion

Total Potential

5.161 billion

13.934 billion

Source: SPO, 2007.

4.1. NATURAL STONE PRODUCTION VALUES

Nowadays, modern marble production methods have been abandoned and modern production methods have been introduced. Marble processing capacities are constantly growing, the number of our modern facilities is continuously increasing and our exports to block marble for many years are now being made to a large extent.

In the marble sector with 2,560 marble quarries, 1,500 factories and 7,500 workshops, approximately 250,000 people are employed. Turkey in 2014, about 5 million 3 is made of natural stone production.

Figure 1: Turkey's natural stone production values.

Source: Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, 2016.

Approximately 83% of the natural stone produced in Turkey marble, travertine constitute 16%. Table 3 shows the natural stone production values ​​between 2010 and 2014.

Table 3: Turkey Natural Stone Production Values

Mine Name

Production

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Unit

ignimbrite

52 055

55 873

8984

29 380

32 195

3

Marble

3.35207 million

4086222

4488947

4255545

4220564

3

Onyx

2113

7678

4867

15 665

10 688

3

Travertine

879 319

1685049

760 549

713 697

812 840

3

Total

4285557

5834822

5263347

5014287

5076287

Andesite

6.43638 million

2878093

2873932

3358863

6803746

ton

Basalt

20,320,391

18,656,135

16,862,087

23,422,845

21,966,172

ton

Granite

239 819

245 911

505 317

896 348

1219916

ton

Until. Stone et al.

207 961

651 932

397 035

641 662

1242236

ton

Serpentine

26 745

2514601

1025427

14 701

13,112

ton

building block

270 270

62 865

37 945

33 553

ton

Diabase

1969

293 777

94 835

335 958

226 939

ton

gabbro

252 463

255 070

ton

Total

27.233.26

25.510.71

21.821.49

28,960,785

31,760,744

ton

Source: Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, 2016.

4.2. EXPORT VALUES IN NATURAL STONE

In 2015 the value of total exports of 143.7 billion shares held in Turkey in the mining sector dolardır.b value is 2.7%. The exports of the mining sector decreased by 16% compared to 2014 and remained at $ 3.9 billion.

Figure 3: 2015 Breakdown by Group of Turkey Mining Exports (%)

Source: IMMIB, 2016.

Natural stones have been the most exported product group of 2015 with 1.9 billion dollars (6.5 million tons) export. Metallic ores are the second with 1 billion dollars (3 million tons) and the third with industrial minerals 765 billion dollars (10 million tons). Graph 3 presents the distribution of mineral exports by product groups.

most exported products in Turkey's total mining exports in 2015 873 million dollars (4.3 million tonnes) of crude, rough-hewn blocks of marble or / travertine has been. This product was followed by processed marble with 753 million dollars (1.5 million tons).

Especially processed products have an important place in the world natural stone trade. In 2015 about 52% of the total export of natural stone products in Turkey has created processed. Graph 5 Turkey has been given the distribution of natural stone exports according to product groups.

Figure 5: 2015 Year of Turkey Breakdown of Export Natural Stone Products Group

Source: IMMIB, 2016.

In 2015, the highest natural stone exports were made to China with 727 million dollars. During the same period, US $ 325 million was exported to the United States, and $ 113.5 million was exported to Saudi Arabia. These countries are followed by Iraq, India, United Arab Emirates, France, Israel, Canada and United Kingdom, respectively. Figure 6 is given in the distribution of the first 10 countries that export natural stone in Turkey in 2015.

Chart 6: Top 10 Countries in Natural Stone Exports in 2015

Source: IMMIB, 2016.

Table 4 presents the export figures and exchange rates of the countries that exported the most natural stone in 2014 and 2015. Turkey's natural stone exports decreased by 10.4% compared to 2014 in 2015. Exports to China, Iraq, France, Canada and the UK decreased when the natural stone exportation of countries was compared to the previous year. Exports to the United States, Saudi Arabia, India, the United Arab Emirates and Israel have increased.

Table 4: 2015 in Turkey Natural Stone Export in the Top 10 Countries

2014

2015

% CHANGE

COUNTRY

QUANTITY (KG)

VALUE

QUANTITY

VALUE

QUANTITY

VALUE

(USD)

(KG)

(USD)

CHINA

4060155834

828 718 455

3552391449

727 572 329

-12.51

-12.21

USA

576 370 057

323 882 064

573 684 311

324 905 085

-0.47

0.32

SAUDI

245 583 795

110 718 256

258 119 068

113 654 330

5.10

2.65

ARABIA

IRAQ

366 191 115

112 429 109

314 096 127

81,275,536

-14.23

-27.71

INDIA

186 765 937

55,634,063

225 581 555

62,914,634

20,78

13.09

UNIFIED

ARAB

76,511,360

47,546,623

82,490,865

48,937,023

7.82

2.92

EMIRATES

FRANCE

100 850 809

50,363,606

104 203 596

43,937,977

3.32

-12.76

ISRAEL

115 471 441

40,058,660

135 161 400

42,119,244

17,05

5.14

CANADA

49,524,455

46,556,941

38,187,744

37,285,197

-22.89

-19.91

BRITAIN

50,733,241

36,638,149

43,620,115

31,355,233

-14.02

-14.42

OTHER

1542934224

475 693 089

1191056546

393 265 598

-22.81

-17.33

TOTAL

7371092268

2128239015

6518592776

1907222186

-11.57

-10.38

Source: IMMIB, 2016.

  1. CONCLUSION AND EVALUATION

which it owns 40% of the world natural stone reserves total 13.9 billion tons of reserves in Turkey is about. With its 1.59 billion tons of known reserves, it has the potential to meet the world needs for many years. In Turkey, despite having a high proportion of the world's marble reserves in the hands of these resources can not use enough. World production of natural stone in Turkey ranks 6th. Looking at the production values ​​in recent years, it is seen that production does not even correspond to 1% of the known reserves. The importance of the marble industry in particular has entered a rapid development after the 1980s, Turkey has been increasing day by day. While natural stone exports in 1998 were 469 thousand tons (SPO, 2001), it increased to 3.6 million tons in 2005 (SPO, 2007). Natural stone exports, which were 6.5 million tons in 2015,

together with the ever increasing interest in the world's reserves of natural building materials it is also expected Turkey's increasing daily exports of natural stone in mind. Turkey's marble potential and have their sources from different types of marble, natural stone market place in the world led to the acquisition. Introducing its original name in the world of marble produced in Turkey and by branding their peak in marble natural stone exports more will be approached. In order to ensure branding, a good introduction is needed besides quality. The largest natural stone fair to be held in Turkey and around the world also needs to be done well in the important introduction of natural stone fair in the world.

States with the improvements to be made jointly by the companies in the marble sector in Turkey is that the potential winner will be possible to use more effective. In the case of international markets, natural stone exports will increase and contribution will be made to the national economy.

As a result, Turkey's proximity to major markets, geopolitical location, natural stone exports in the near future, with future production given the incentive of natural stone quality is likely to become the most important country. For this, great importance should be given to R & D activities, technological developments, cheap quality, timely delivery and marketing.

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http://www.yaymer.com/files/1_saha_kalkan_mermer_sektoru.pdf. Date of access:

04/25/2016.

Source: http://dergipark.gov.tr/paradigma/issue/22257/239011